Metal Detector Heat Maps of Landmines

A Fisher model M-101 MD was used to record a signal (a voltage was read from the MD audio jack by a Fluke digital multimeter) as a function of lateral position from the object center for several height offsets from the surface of the object. The picture shows the setup, which has all experimental elements inverted (arranged upside-down) for the lab experiments relative to the orientation that would be seen in the field.


Type: PMN-1 (Test Case)

Justification: Comparable dimensions and metal content to PMN-2 and PMN-4, and still more universally encountered than either of the other PMN series.

Found in: Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Chechnya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Honduras, Iraq, Kurdistan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Vietnam, Yemen

Vertical offsets used: 0 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: Used as a test case. Notice that the metal clip on the side makes an asymmetrical image. The square shape is the result of recording on a (coarse) 5-cm grid.


Type: PMN-4

Justification:

Found in:

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: Detectable up to 15 cm vertical offset.


Type: VS-50

Justification: More representative of newer-generation mines, and widely copied and proliferated by Egypt, Iran etc.

Found in: Afghanistan, Angola, Ecuador, Iraq, Turkey, Kuwait, Lebanon, Peru, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Western Sahara, Zimbabwe

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: No signal at 10 cm and above


Type: Type 72

Justification: Minimal metal, small, widely used.

Found in: Angola, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Cambodia, China, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: The MD response is very small. No signal at 5 cm and above.


Type: M14

Justification: Same as Type 72, but even smaller, widely copied (e.g. India, Vietnam, Myanmar, etc.)

Found in: Angola, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Vietnam, Zambia

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: Small signal, only barely detectable at 0 cm offset.


Type: PMA-2

Justification:: A different format from the others, and very low metal content; only a non-ferrous metal detonator capsule.

Found in: Albania, Angola, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Cambodia, Croatia, Kosovo, Namibia

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: Small signal, only barely detectable at 0 cm offset.


Type: Horizontal Can (Clutter)

Justification:: Clutter example.

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes:


Type: Crushed Can (Clutter)

Justification:: Clutter example.

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes:


Type: Knife (Clutter)

Justification:: Clutter example.

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes:


Type: Metal Scrap (Clutter)

Justification:: Clutter example.

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes:


Type: Altoids Tin (Clutter)

Justification:: Clutter example.

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes:


Type: Shell Casing (Clutter)

Justification:: Clutter example.

Vertical offsets used: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes:


Return to the main page