Metal Detector Heat Maps of Landmines

A Fisher model M-101 MD was used to record a signal (a voltage was read from the MD audio jack by a Fluke digital multimeter) as a function of lateral position from the object center for several height offsets from the surface of the object. The picture shows the setup, which has all experimental elements inverted (arranged upside-down) for the lab experiments relative to the orientation that would be seen in the field.


Type: PMN-1

Justification: Comparable dimensions and metal content to PMN-2 and PMN-4, and still more universally encountered than either of the others PMN series.

Found in: Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Chechnya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Honduras, Iraq, Kurdistan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Vietnam, Yemen

Vertical offsets used: 0 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: Notice that the metal clip on the side makes an asymmetrical image. The square shape is the result of recording on a 5-cm grid.


Type: VS-50

Justification: More representative of newer-generation mines, and widely copied and proliferated by Egypt, Iran etc.

Found in: Afghanistan, Angola, Ecuador, Iraq, Turkey, Kuwait, Lebanon, Peru, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Western Sahara, Zimbabwe

Vertical offsets used: 0 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: Notice the interesting semi-square peak. This is the result of recording on a 5-cm grid.


Type: Type 72

Justification: Minimal metal, small, widely used.

Found in: Angola, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Cambodia, China, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia

Vertical offsets used: 0 cm

Heat Maps:

Notes: The MD response is very small (less than a third of that for the PMN-1). But, it has an interesting feature: a set of slight negative responses surrounding the central metal pin.


Type: M14

Justification: Same as Type 72, but even smaller, widely copied (e.g. India, Vietnam, Myanmar, etc.)

Found in: Angola, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Vietnam, Zambia

Vertical offsets used:

Heat Maps:

Notes:


Type: PMA-2

Justification:: A different format from the others, and very low metal content; only a non-ferrous metal detonator capsule.

Found in: Albania, Angola, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Cambodia, Croatia, Kosovo, Namibia

Vertical offsets used:

Heat Maps:

Notes: